Teaching is a complex or composite process which brings socially desirable and acceptable behavioral change in a person. Teaching is a part of teaching-learning process or method. It is essentially required to bring certain changes in a person according to the requirement of his society and environment in which he is living or is a part. Teaching is not an action as it is dynamic in nature so it is termed as a process or method. It is also not a primary concept as it is highly influenced by social and human factors. Teaching or educating is both art and science. It is an activity comprising teacher and student with a view to the development and progress of student.
The main target of teaching is to bring about socially acceptable behavioral changes in the students and can be accomplished only if teaching is effective and based on certain values or principles.
Teaching is one of the vital parts of the teaching-learning process. So effective teaching is mostly dependant on the teacher. It is a genuine and common fact that a good teacher is born and not made. Research and training can make a good teacher better and a better teacher to be the best. Teacher should follow various methods of teaching constructed from time to time. A teacher encourages the practice of thinking among students or pupils. Teacher should give to the students or the pupils the freedom and chances to express their ideas.
Teaching is needed to impart education to the students. Education may be regarded as the process of drawing out the least in an individual. We can also regard teaching as the social process or method under which people come under or are subjected to the influence or impact of a selected and controlled environment, so that they may gain optimum individual development or progress and social competence.
The complete process or method of education must contain four common factors
- Educator (teacher)
- Educed (Student)
- the subject matter
- the context (setting)
Education now is the process or method of developing some abilities or attributes in an individual. Abilities are the in born quality, it is also a fact that these can brought up and developed in an education through various ways by an educator. Education must also be useful and relevant to the society in which the student or pupil has to live. As every individual is unique or distinct in their own way, the educator must adopt strategies and methods that are suitable to individual needs. Education also must be productive. The productivity of education (rate of efficiency of work) can be categorized as both qualitative and quantitative. Education can be better achieved both by qualitative and quantitative productivity. Quality here means the brilliance in the part of textbooks, teachers and students’ aids, benefits and other teaching aids. Quantity on the other hand refers to the number of teachers, institutions, professionals, etc.
Education and teaching are co-related. Education is a complex socio- cultural and ethical process or method patterned in a socio- cultural content. It is related with socio- cultural structures and environments, society and government, values and ideas of people,. All these factors are dynamic in nature. So teaching can be called as a dynamic process or method and its definition changes on the basis of place and time. Morrison defines teaching as a disciplined social process or method in which teacher or educator influences or regulates the behaviors of the no experienced or less experienced pupil and helps him to develop or up build according to the needs of the society. Smith coined it as an organised or synchronized system of specific or particular activities targeted to help the learner learn something.
An analytical approach or study makes it very clear that neither of the definitions fulfil the purpose.
A good definition of teaching should be the following
- Whether teaching is a act or practice
- Clearly indicates constitutional factors.
- ReveaIs objectives, and
- Say something on the organizational and structural aspect of it.
Based on this analysis teaching can be defined as a tri-polar process or method involving man or material sources of teaching students and a set of organized or systematic activities patterned and manipulated in order to bring changes in the behaviors of the taught or the pupils. Since teaching is a process or method which is dynamic in nature therefore it changes its concept according to the change of time and place. It is a professional activity or task. Teaching or instructing can be analyzed and assessed. This assessment and analysis provide feedback for further improvement and development in the methods of teaching. Teaching is greatly dominated by communicating skills. It is interactive process or method that is carried with purpose and objectives. Teaching may have various forms viz., directional, instructional, formational, training, conditioning, talking, showing, formal, and informal, etc. All these words cannot be single handedly synonymous to teaching. Teaching is a term which is much broader concept. All these activities comprise teaching at different level.
Teaching is analyzed in several ways for understanding it, for designing teaching methods and process and stuffs with a view to extract specific objectives making teaching more effective and functional. This modification is based on feedbacks. Teaching skill is one of the primary things required by a teacher. Teaching or instructing involves interaction. So, communicating skill, attitude, attribute, interest personality, all these are also taken into account for effective teaching. A teacher cannot be regarded only as a skilled worker. He or she must have proper guts or courage to set an example at a superior level as he is the leader of his pupil. He or she has to develop necessary influence for bringing the desired modification in behavior of the pupil.
Teacher works to change the behaviour of students according to the need of the society. He/she must also creates situation to increase the thinking capacity of mind of students. He give education to the people. Education is a tripolar process involving educator, educate and social milieu the educand is dependent variable of education whereas educator is independent variable. Social milieu is required for the direction of education. Education should develop intellectual, moral, aesthetic, democratic, material and economic life to make our country a leading force. Hard work and mental alertness should be the Ist requisite of the educational training. The teacher has to provide intellectual and social leadership. He is to follow a curriculum but his task is beyond this. He acts as an ideal for his students. He has to follow the way of simple life with great thinking. His morale should be high. He must be competent. His efficiency and enthusiasm is also very important. He must also prossess some other qualities as he is the pivote of educational system. Such as use of good means for good ends, clear thinking no prejudice, ability of crucial judgments at the right and proper time, tolerance are needed for a teacher. Teacher must be ready to be a part to their students all information geographical, historical, socio political practical and scientific and strategic.
The complete educational process has four important common factors
- subject matter
- setting (context).