Steps of Research



(a) Identification of research:

The very Ist step of research is to identify the subject and nature of the problem.

(b) Proposal of Action:

After recognized the subject or the problem, we proposed an action plan to solve the problem or find a solution for that problem.

(c) Constructing hypothesis :

Hypothesis is a tentative explanation for a monitoring , phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation. It is a concept that is not yet conferm but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena.

Characteristics of hypothesis :

  • It should state the relationship between variables.
  • It must consist of known facts.
  • It can be tested.
  • It must be clear in its concept.
  • It must be objective and specific.
  • It should be amendable to testing with in a short time.

So our next step is to construct a assumption  for research and after that he plans to explain it either based on laboratory experiment or field experiment.

(d) Collection of data :

The researcher collects data either in experimental way or in non probing  way, for his problem.

(e) Presentation of data :

The next step is to represent the collected data in logical manner so that he or any one else will be able to analyse that easily. Most general way of demonstration data in scientific or social research is to make table of the collected data in certain way which shows the relation between variables.

(f) Analysis of data :

The analysis is done in both ways statistical and descriptive analysis.

(g) Declaration of Result :

After analysing the data, the researcher declares the result of the research.

Paper :

It is an essay or dissertation read at a Seminar or published in a gazette. It is a formal written configuration  intended to published, presented, or read aloud or a scholarly essay.

Article :

It is a documentary literacy composition that forms an independent part of a publication, as of a newspaper or magazine.


A conference at which a group of people engages in intensive discussion and activity on a particular subject matter or cantilever.


A group of people for discussion on training on a specific subject.

Conference :

A formal meeting for annualize or argue .



A meeting or colloquium for discussion for a topic, principally  one in which the participants form an audience and making of presentation.

Dissertation or Thesis:

A treaties  facilitate a new point of view resulting from research; usually a necessity for an advance academic degree.

Thesis and its format: One of the most common  format for thesis is given below. The topic  of contents and chapter are almost same for every subject/university. In some case one or two header may be irrelevant or one or two more headed may be required. We can divide the full thesis of four parts :

  • Introduction
  • Explanation of the topic
  • Details of research & its result
  • Reference and appendices.

Think about the brief  of chapters and decide what is best for your research. Then make the  list, in point form, of what will go in each and every chapter. Always referred  the text of thesis in logical order. Make a plan for every chapter and section, the result will dough less  to be clearer and easier to read.

The different heading may be the following:

  • Copyright Waiver : This gives the university library the right to publish your work.
  • Declaration : This page declares that the thesis is your own work and is not taken from any other’s work.
  • Title Page : The page  format of this  may be Title/Author “A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in faculty of Science/The… University”/date.
  • Abstract : This part was most important part of the thesis as it is most widely published and read page. It is best written towards the end. It should be self contained and contains a consise description of the problems addressed. Your formula of solving, result and conclusion.
  • Acknowledgements : It was the thanks giving page to all the mankind who helped in the research or whose work you used for your research.
  • Table of happy. Intro starts from page 1, the earlier pages should has been different numbering system.
  • Introduction : This gives details about topic its importance. This must be very interesting. You should not bore the reader. Never overestimate the reader’s eles with your topic.
  • Literature Review : Where did the problem come from? what is already known about the problem? If you have been keeping up with the laguage as you commit to do three years ago, and if you have made notes about important papers year the over , then you have some good points for the recheck .
  • Materials and Methods : That varies from thesis to thesis and may be absent in text book thesis. This  explains the process used for research.
  • Theory
  • Results and conference: The results and conference are very often combined in thesis. The cleaving of results and Discussion stuff into chapters is usually best done according to subject matter. In most cases your result want discussion. Wh’at do they mean? How can they fit into living body of knowledge? Are they consistent with present theories? Do they give new insight? Do they suggest new theories or mechanism?
  • Ending: Generally extract also contains conclusion-in very brief form. A abstract of conclusions may be put in point form after the result and analysis chapter.
  • Reference, and Appendices
  • Bibliography


  1. Which greet were generally follow when the public was finite?

(a) Area sampling technique

(b) Purposive sampling technique

(c) Systematic sampling technique

(d) None of the above

  1. The logic of a research can be improved by

(a) eliminating extraneous factors

(b) taking the true representative sample of the citizens

(c) both of the above measures

(d) none of these

  1. The field study was connected to

(a) real-life situations

(b) experimental situations

(c) laboratory situations

(d) none of the above

  1. Self – standing variables are not manipulated in

(a) normative researches

(b) ex-post-facto researches

(c) both of the above

(d) none of the above

  1. The research inimical to ex-post facto research is

(a)experimental studies

(b) normative researches

(c) library researches

(d) all of the above

6.Who was hold the father of scientific social surveys ?

(a) Darwin


(c) Best

(d) None of these

7.Credit of objects, hap or things which can be measured are called

(a) qualitative measure

(b) data

(c) variables

(d) none of the above

8.The writ not needed in experimental researches is

(a) observation

(b) controlling

(c) manipulation and replication

(d) reference collection

9.The probing study is based on the law of it

(a) single variable

(b) replication

(c) occupation

(d) the interest of the subject

10.A teacher runs into various problems during his professional experiences. He should

(a) resign from her post of such situations

(b) do research on that worry and discover a solution

(c) avoid problematic situation

(d) take help of the head of the institution


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