The research was the logical and neutral analysis and recording of controlled examination that may show to the development of generalizations truth or theories resulting in divine and possibly last control of events.
Scientific research is a logical and objective attempt to provide answers of a certain question. It is a vital and powerful tool in leading towards going. Notable research leads to progress in some fields of life. Research is born out of human curiosity. The interest aroused to study motion, behavior patterns etc. We can also define research as “Ideally, the careful unswayed investigation of a matter, based in sofar as viable upon verified facts and involving refined distinctions, interpretations and usually some notion “. Educational research is the study and investigation in the field of education or gait upon educational problems. Since research is a solid problem solving approach to learning it aims and assists in carry out the goals through analysis and comprehensive investigation.
CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
- It is always directed towards the solution of an issue.
- It is always based on seen or plain evidences.
- It involves precise watching and accurate description.
- Gives emphasis to the development of theories, principles and generalizations, which are very helpful in accurate predictions regarding the variable under study.
- It is systematic, objective and logical.
Type of Researchs:
There was many classifications of research. Some of the important classifications were:
(i) Exploratory and conclusive research :
Exploratory or formulate research aims at probing into the phenomenon to formulate a more precise research problem or to develop a hypothesis. While undeniable research tests these hypothesis developed through exploratory research and may suggest a new idea or a new good time.
(ii) Fundamental or pure or basis research, applied research and action research :
Fundamental research is the formal and systematic process where the researcher’s aim is to develop a theory or a model by pick out all the important alterable in the situation and by find broad generalisations and idea about these variables. Applied research, applies the theory or model developed theories but to test those existing theories in real problem situations. Action testing has recently been popular in the field of social psychology, trade psychology and education. In action testing, researcher focuses upon the immediate result and applications of a problem of a theory or a model.
(iii) Ancient research, descriptive research and experimental research:
Ancient research describes what were. The action involves study, recording, scaning and interpreting the events of the past for the purpose of discovering generalizations that are helpful in understanding the past and the present and to a finite extent, in anticipating the future. Descriptive research describes records, analyzes, and clarify the conditions that exist, practices that prevail, beliefs, points of views or attitudes that are held action that are going in effects that are being felt, or trends that are grow. It require some type of comparison or contrast and attempts to discover relationship between existing non manipulated variables. It can be of many types like look over studies, correlation studies casual comparative studies and development studies. Trial research describes what will be when certain variables are carefully run or manipulated. The focus is on the variable relationships. Deliberate manipulation is always a part of the probing method. Trial research is the description and analysis of what will be, or what will occur, under carefully run conditions in which one factor is varied and the others are kept continual and can be repeated by another investigator, by the same investigator or another occasion with nearly identical results.
(iv) Experimental and non-experimental testing :
This classification is based on the nature of testing. An probing research is one where the independent variables can be directly workedby experimenter. It is further cut up into two main types—Laboratory experiment and field experiment. A non experimental research is one where independent variables cannot be worked and therefore cannot be experimentally studied. A non experimental research can be cut up into three main types–field studies, expost factor research and survey research.
It is the study of a worry in a situation in which some variables are manipulated and some are managed in order to have an effect upon the dependent variable. The variables which are manipulated are known as independent variables and the variables which are controlled are known as extraneous or relevent variables. Thus in a laboratory experiment, the effect of manipulation of an independent variable upon the dependent variable is observed under controlled conditions.
It is a study move out is a more or less down-to-earth or field where the experimenter successfully manipulates one or more bold variables under the maximum possible controlled climate.
It is a study which completely discovers relations and interplay among variables in real life situations such as school, factory, community college etc. It bawn study the investigator depends upon the existing conditions of a bawn situation as well as upon the selection of subject for determining the relationship among variables.
EXPOSED FACTO STUDY :
In this the investigators attempt to trace an effect which has already occurred to its probable causes effect becomes the dependent variable and the probable causes become the independent variable. The investigator has no direct control over such elastic.
SURVEY RESEARCH :
It is a fashion where, the explorer or researcher studies the whole population with respect to certain sociological and psychological variables. Depending upon the ways of collecting data, survey research can be classified into different categories, namely, personal interview, main questionnaire, panel technique and telephone survey.
- Who said that members of the same species are not uniform?
(b) Herbert Spencer
- A logical size based upon the entire population is called parameter while size based upon a sample is known as
(a) sample parameter
(d) none of these
- Generalized end on the basis of a sample is technically known as
(a) statistical thesis of external validity of the research
(b) data analysis and interpretation
(c) parameter inference
(d) all of the above
- A researcher selects a likelihood sample of 100 out of the total population. It is
(a) a cluster sample
(b) a random sample
(c) a stratified sample
(d) a systematic sample
- A researcher divides the populations into PG, graduates and 10 + 2. Tutee and using the random digit table he selects some of them from each. This is technically called
(a) stratified sampling
(b) stratified random sampling
(c) representative sampling
(d) none of these
6.The final outcome of a study will be more exact if the sample drawn is
(a) taken randomly
(b) fixed by quota
(c) representative to the population
7.A researcher pick only 10 members as a typical from the total population of 5000 and considers it good because
(a) he was a good researcher
(b) he was guided by his manager
(c) the populations were homogeneous
(d) all of these
- Area (cluster) slice technique is used when
(a). population is break up and large size of the sample is to be drawn
(b) population is heterogeneous
(c) long survey is needed
(d) (a) and (c)
- A researcher divides his population into certain groups and fixes the size of the sample from each group: It is called
(a) stratified sample
(b) quota sample
(c) cluster sample
(d) all of the above
- Which of the backing is a non-probability sampling ?
(a) Quota sample
(b) Simple random sample
(c) Purposive sample
(d) (a) and (c) both