Indian Painting and Culture

Indian Painting & Culture

Indian Painting & Culture


Culture plays a vital and crusial role in the development of any nation. It represent a set of shared attitude, value, goals and practices. Culture and the arts manifest themselves in almost many economic activity and other thing. A country as diverse as India was symbolize by the plurality of its culture.

India has one of the world’s largest collection of songs, music, dance, theater, folk culture, art, painting and writing, such as the “Intangible Cultural Heritage” of people.


The Indian Paintings

Painting as an art form had swing in India for early periods as is evident from literary origin and from the residuum that had been discovered. The numerous painting or Patas was mentioned in the Mudrakshaka. There are seperated paintings like the Yama-pata; seperated framed drawing viz., Cauka-patas and the Dighala-patas or long scroll of  paintings, constituting a complete legend. In another book Vishnudharmottara, the section Chitrasutra describe the basic tenets of painting. The six limbs of paintings were: various form, proportion inculcate of emotions, creation of iridescence and luster, portrayal of colour and lightness mixing to produce the effect of modeling.

The Ancient Indian Paintings:

Ancient Indian art had seen the rise of the Bengal school of art in 1930’s pursue by a lot of forms of experimentation in European.

Monuments of the exceptional value are Bhimbetka Rock Shelters, here, more than 500 smaller rock and caves contain 1000 of painting. Some of the oldest  painting here is more than 15 thousand years old, and in some cases it was 30 thousand years old.

The prehistoric art form was spread all over India from snow covered Himalaya to south of Tamil Nadu .

Indian cave paintings were regarded as the earliest affirmation of Indian paintings which are made on walls of the cave and palaces while miniature paintings are small sized colourful, intricate handmade illumination.

This starts from prehistoric cave painting of Bhimbetka and flourish through cave painting of Ajanta caves, Ellora Caves and Bagh.


The Mediaeval Indian paintings

During the Mediaeval period India observed important development in the field of Art of painting. The India was the part of Indian history between eighth century and 18 century A.D.

The Persian tradition of miniature painting is also first introduced by the local rules. It was during Akbar’s supremacy that the painting is organize by a grant concern which draught jointly Hindu and Muslim printers and additions from diverse part of India particularly from regions like Gujarat and Malwa where manuscripts and miniature painting has developed.

Malwa painting mainly describe in Islamic design of painting and flourished in the early years of Mughal including Akbar Jahangir and Sahajahan. Tanjore paintingsare classical South Indian form of painting which involved in the village of Thanjavur.

Rajasthani paintings are paintings of miniature of the finest quality which are made both on paper and on large pieces of cloth in number of famous School painting are Mewar Hadoti Marwar, Kishngart, Alwar and Dhundhar. Pahari painting which is the miniature painting progress in the hilly states of Himachal Pradesh, Punjab Jammu and Kashmir during the period of Rajput. These paintings have beautiful sins of Himalaya as the backdrop.



Modern Indian Paintings:

Glass Painting in India is a new concept and idea and is extremely wonderful for its clarity, richness and variety of colours. Patachitra flourished in the state of odisha and is mainly made on cloth with extremely vivid colour and mythological-based subject. Kalighat pots are another form, which are made on pot or cloth. These were mainly used as wall hangings. Marble Painting is a type of modern Indian painting which is made on marble stones. Marble paintings are mainly used for decorative purpose, specially on tabletop, furniture, walls, stairs and flower vases. The Indian artists will endorse oil painting as a ecentric technique of art and Raja Ravi Verma was considered to be the pioneer who made this new means popular in India.

The tradition and culture of painting had been carried on in the Indian subcontinent since the ancient times. Standing as a testimony of this fact are the exquisite murals of Ajanta and Ellora, Buddhist palm leaf manuscripts, Mughal and Kangra schools of little work Indian paintings, etc. In fact it had been found that it indicate the usage of paintings for decorating the doorways, guest rooms, etc. With the going time, Indian classical paintings mostly spread to become a sort of blend to the various traditions influencing them. Even though the Indian folk painting had become popular amongst art lovers, both at the national as well as the international level. Most of the folk paintings were reflected a heavy influence on the local customs and traditions. In the following , there is a information on the famous paintings of India.


  • The Patachitra of Odisha derives stories from the popular poem, the Geet Govind, and devotional stanzas by ancient poets, singers and writers.
  • Stories are drawn in sections on palm leaf as etchings or as paintings on paper and silk.
  • Modern developments have encouraged them to paint on wooden boxes, picture frames etc. for contemporary use.
  • Paintings are based on Hindu Mythology and uniquely influenced by Jagannath and Vaishnava cult.
  • Paintings were done on tiny strips of cotton cloth. The canvas were prepared by covering the cloth with a combination of chalk and gum made from tamarind seeds. Women traditionally make this gum by own.
  • The master hand, mostly the male member, draws the initial line and gives the final finishing.
  • The painting is held over a tire-place so that the back of the painting is exposed to heat. Natural colours are used.

Bengal Painting

  • The Bengal School of Art was an prestigious style of art that proliferated in India during the British Raj in the early 20th Century.
  • It was associated with Indian nationalism, but was also supported and promoted by many British art administrators.
  • The School of Bengal influence in India diminished with the spread of modernist ideas in the 1920s.
  • The indigenous art from belongs to Bengal and very interestingly it depicts spoof on retrograde social practices, thus attempting to highlight them for change.
  • Artists use dye that are made of spices, earth, soot etc. and particularly red, indigo, green , black and ochre colours are seen in such painting.

Madhubani Painting

  • Madhubani painting derived in a small village known as Maithili of Bihar. Initially, the kinswomen folk of the townlet drew the paintings mainly on the walls of their home. It was an illustration of their thoughts, hopes and dreams.
  • The brush used for Madhubani paintings of Bihar was made of cotton, wrapped around a bamboo stick.
  • The artists prepare the colours that are used for the paintings.
  • Artists use natural dyes and pigment extracted fro leaves, herbs and flowers.

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